Fleischer Animation Process

Here’s a figure excerpted from Max Fleischer’s Patent #2,054,414 for the stereoptic process. This begets a weird quasi-3D effect seen in many of the Fleischer cartoons in the 1930’s (e.g. Dancing on the Moon (1935) and several old Popeye shorts). Items No. 27, 33 and 34 are not fans, but color wheels for changing the mood of an animation scene. Note there are up to 5 planes behind the animation cell. Disney studios’ Bill Garity and Roger Broggie later advanced (copied?) the concept by developing the “multiplane camera” put to extensive use in Bambi (1942).

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